Margaret Hunter: a Jungian Analysis

By Anna Lisa Stone | University of St Andrews | School of Art History

List of Illustrations

  1. Margaret Hunter, Whisper, 1988. Acrylic on paper, 134.7 x 100.4 cm. Scottish National Gallery of Modern Art, Edinburgh.
  2. Margaret Hunter, Only Just, 2002. Oil on canvas, 30 x 30 cm. Artist’s collection.
  3. Margaret Hunter, Girl at the Window, c.1984. Oil on Canvas, dimensions unknown. Artist’s collection.
  4. Margaret Hunter, Ship of Fools I and II, 1985. Oil on canvas, dimensions unknown. Artist’s collection.
  5. Margaret Hunter, Girl Going Downstairs, 1984/5. Oil on canvas, dimensions unknown. Over-painted.
  6. Stephen Campbell, Hiker's Ballet with Yawning Child, 1983. Oil on canvas, 289.6 x 289.6 cm. Private collection.
  7. Alexander Moffat, Poet’s Pub, 1980. Oil on canvas 183 x 240 cm. Scottish National Gallery of Modern Art, Edinburgh.
  8. Margaret Hunter, Woman Holding Snail. Oil on canvas, dimensions unknown. Artist’s collection.
  9. Margaret Hunter, Recurrent Themes (Study) I, 11, 1990. Charcoal on paper, each 80 x 53 cm. Artist’s collection.
  10. Margaret Hunter, Janus Head (Study) 1990. Charcoal on paper, 80 x 53 cm. Janus Head 1997. Wood and copper, 67 x 32 x 22 cm. Both private collection.
  11. Margaret Hunter, Adieu, 1989. Mixed media on paper, 157 x 99 cm. Artist’s collection.
  12. Margaret Hunter, Self-Containment, 1997. Wood and copper, dimensions unknown. Private collection.
  13. Margaret Hunter, Near Seeing, 1990. Oil on board, 109 x 79 cm. Private collection.
  14. Margaret Hunter, Ancient Pathways, 1989/90. Oil on wood, 125 x 103 cm. Private collection.
  15. From the left: Artist unknown, Power Figure: Standing Man, Congo; Vili, 19th century. Wood, glass, porcelain, metal bells, nails, organic materials, height 45 cm. Gift of Robert Visser, Berlin Museum für Völkerkunde, Berlin. [Collection circa 1990].
    • Adieu (as above).
    • Artist Unknown, Power Figure, Zaire; Songye, 19th century. Wood, brass tacks, sheet brass, lizard skin, iron hooks, tooth fibre, fur, leather, height 18 cm. Collected by Hermann von Wissman, Berlin Museum für Völkerkunde, Berlin. [Collection circa 1990].
    • Margaret Hunter, Figure with Bronze Cones (The Receiver), 1992. Wood and bronze, dimensions unknown. Private collection.
  16. Margaret Hunter, CV Hat, 1988. Acrylic and oil on paper, 110 x 110 cm. Private collection
  17. Whisper (as above).
  18. Margaret Hunter, Breaking the Mould, 1992. Oil on wood, 170 x 250 cm. The Collins Gallery, University of Strathclyde, Glasgow.
  19. Margaret Hunter, Two Paths, 1992. Oil on wood, 250 x 170 cm. Artist’s collection.
  20. Margaret Hunter, Recurrent Themes (Study), IV, 1990. Charcoal on paper, 80 x 53 cm. Private collection.
  21. Margaret Hunter, Recurrent Themes, 1990. Oil on canvas, 162 x 111 cm. Private collection.
  22. Margaret Hunter, Dinner Party, 1990. Oil on wood, 121 x 99 cm. Highland Council.
  23. Margaret Hunter, Nürnberger Trichter, 1992. Wood, rope and copper, height 259 cm. Private collection.
  24. Margaret Hunter, Shout, 1992. Oil on wood, 180 x 120 cm. Artist’s collection.
  25. Margaret Hunter, Kopf und Bauch, 1993. Wood, 186 x 32 cm. Private collection.
  26. Margaret Hunter, Points of Contact, 1997. Wood, steel and copper, 164 x 60 x 20 cm. Private collection.
  27. Margaret Hunter, In Between, 1993. Oil on canvas, 180 x 120 cm. Private collection.
  28. Jakob Bhöme Manda from XL Questions Concerning the Soul, 1620. In Carl Jung, The Archetypes and the Collective Unconscious, 2nd edition. (London: Routledge, 1959, 2011), 297.
  29. Margaret Hunter, Dreamings, 1999/2000. Oil on canvas, 105 x 85 cm. Private collection.
  30. Margaret Hunter, Distant Imitations, 1999/2000. Oil on wood, 120 x 95 cm. Artist’s collection.
  31. Only Just (as above).
  32. Margaret Hunter, Leaves, 1999/2000. Oil on wood, 119 x 100 cm. Private collection.
  33. Margaret Hunter, Girls with Golden Threads, 2002. Oil on canvas, 110 x 150 cm. Artist’s collection.
  34. Symbols of vulvas engraving on a block found in the rock shelter of La Ferrassie, in Savignac-de-Miremont, Dordogne, France. Aurignacian culture. It can be viewed in the National Prehistory Museum in Les Eyzies-de-Tayac.
  35. Margaret Hunter, Bunch of Person, 1999/2000. Oil on wood, 142 x 105 cm. Private collection.
  36. Margaret Hunter, Changing Places, 1992. Oil on wood, 250 x 170 cm. Artist’s collection.
  37. Margaret Hunter, Whisper (as above);
  38. Margaret Hunter, In Between (detail) [as above].
  39. Whisper (as above).
  40. Margaret Hunter, Another Conversation, 1999/2000. Acrylic on canvas, 50 x 40 cm. Private collection.

Copyright photography

© Antonia Reeve Photography, Edinburgh: figs 13, 14, 18, 19, 21, 22, 24
© Sven Hoffmann Photographie, Berlin: figs 29, 30, 31, 32, 33, 35, 38
© Tobias Dombek, R. Grunenberg Gmbh Berlin: fig 11
© Margaret Hunter: figs 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 8, 9, 10, 12, 16, 17, 20, 23, 25, 26, 27, 31



Hansen, Lys. Emails to author, 5, 6, 7 April 2011.

Hunter, Margaret. Interview by author, 9 November 2011, Waldsiedlung Gross Glienicke, Berlin, Germany. Transcript, printed in Appendix
- Emails to author, November 2010-April 2011.
- Letter to author, 29 March 2011.

Lochhead, Liz. Interview by author, 9 January 2011, Hillhead, Glasgow. Tape recording.

Sources relating to Margaret Hunter

Cameron, Neil. ‘Meet Germany’s International Team.’ The Scotsman, 26 February2002, ‘Critic’s Choice’, p.13

Hunter, Margaret. ‘A Life in Translation’, Lecture Notes for the A.H.M. Symposium. Edinburgh, 2 April 201l. Forwarded to author.

MacMillan, Duncan. ‘In With The Bricks.’ The Scotsman, 16 November, 1999, p.16

Millar, Bruce. ‘The Next Damien Hirst – at 50?’ The Independent, 3 October, 1996, p.4

Smith, Gordon. ‘Changing Times, Different Places.’ Scotland on Sunday, 16 May 1993, p.38

Taylor, Pennie. ‘Self Expressionism.’ The Independent, 6 November 1990

Macmillan, D. ‘Art Review: RSA Annual Exhibition.’ The Scotsman, 19 May 2010, accessed 2 November 2010; available from http://www.artfirst.co.uk/margaret_hunter/pe_hunter_04.html; Internet.

STV People. ‘Episode 16: Margaret Hunter.’ Talking Pictures – 24mins – 3 September 1992, accessed 2 November 2010; available from http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=5S2vvwxuIdQ&feature=related; Internet.

Exhibition Catalogues

Margaret Hunter: Recent Paintings and Drawings. London: Vanessa Devereux Gallery, 1990.

Margaret Hunter: Changing Places. Glasgow: Collins Gallery, University of Strathclyde, 1992.

Margaret Hunter: Vital Patterns. London: Art First, 1998.

Margaret Hunter: Elemental Traces. London: Art First, 2000.

Margaret Hunter: Intercessions. Glasgow: Collins Gallery, University of Strathclyde, 2001.

Margaret Hunter: Lines of Continuity. London: Art First, 2002.

Margaret Hunter: Bunch of Person. London: Art First, 2006.

Jungian Theory

Jacobi, Jolande. Complex/Archetype/Symbol in the Psychology of C G Jung. London: Routledge, 1925; 1999.

Jung, Carl G. The Archetypes and the Collective Unconscious, 2nd edition trans. R.F.C. Hull. London: Routledge & Kegan Paul, 1959. Reprint, London: Routledge, 2011.
- Psychological Types Or The Psychology of Individuation, trans. H. Godwin
- Baynes. London: Kegan Paul, 1923.
- ed. Man and His Symbols. New York: Dell, 1964.

Jung, Emma. Animus and Anima, trans. Cary F. Baynes; Hildegard Nagel. New York: The Analytical Psychology Club, 1956; 1972.

Young-Eisendrath, Polly, and Terence Dawson. The Cambridge Companion to Jung, 2nd editon. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2008. Cambridge Collections Online. Cambridge University Press, accessed 9 April 2011; available from http://cco.cambridge.org/uid=12084/extract?id=ccol9780521865999_CCOL9780521865999_root; Internet.

General Theory

Buchloh, Benjamin H.D. ‘Figures of Authority, Ciphers of Regression: Notes on the Return of Representation in European Painting.’ October, Vol. 16, Art World Follies (Spring 1981), 39-68, The MIT Press, accessed 15 February 2011; available from http://www.jstor.org/stable/778374; Internet.

D’Alleva, Anne. Methods and Theories of Art History. London: Laurence King, 2004.

Feminist Theory

Chicago, Judy and Edward Lucie-Smith. Women and Art: Contested Territory, Sussex: The Ivy Press, 1999.

Comini, Alessandra. ‘Gender of Genius? The Women Artists of German Expressionism.’ In Feminism and Art History: Questioning the Litany, eds. Norma Broude and Mary D. Gallard. New York: Harper & Row, 1982.

Nochlin, Linda. Women, Art, and Power, and Other Essays. London: Thames and Hudson, 1989.

Parker, Rozsika and Griselda Pollock. Framing Feminism: Art and the Women’s Movement 1970-85. London: Pandora, 1987.
- Old Mistresses: Women, Art and Ideology. London: Routledge & Kegan Paul, 1981.

Pollock, Griselda, ed. Generations and Geographies in the Visual Arts: Feminist Readings. London: Routledge, 1996.

Robinson, Hilary. ‘Border crossings: Womanliness, Body, Representation.’ In New Feminist Art Criticism, ed. Katy Deepwell. Manchester: Manchester Universiry Press, 1995.

Sources relating to other contemporary Scottish artists

Beckett, Wendy. Contemporary Women Artists. London: Phaidon, 1988.

Currie, Ken. ‘New Glasgow Painting in Context’, Edinburgh Review, No. 72. (February 1986): 73-4.

Cooper, Neil. ‘Karin Christiansen and Lys Hansen: The Other Side – A Dialogue. The List (17 July 2008), accessed 5 November 2010; available from http://www.list.co.uk/article/10132-karin-christiansen-and-lys-hansen-the-other-side-a-dialogue/

Griffis, John. ‘Heroes and Dreamers: Scottish Figurative Art in the 80s.’ Art and Design, vol. 13, No. 718. (1987): 69.

Gwen Hardie: Paintings and Drawings. Edinburgh: Fruitmarket Gallery, 1987.

Hill, Peter. ‘Steven Campbell interviewed by Peter Hill, Watts Bar, Manhattan, December 1983.’ In Alba No 1. (January 1984), accessed 15 March 2011; available from http://www.superfictions.com/elgrecol/StevenCampbell.htm
- ‘Interview with Adrian Wiszniewski.’ In Alba No 8 (1988), accessed 24 January 2011; available from http://www.superfictions.com/elgrecol/AdrianWiszniewski.htm

Heller, Roger. Peter Howson. London: Momentum, 2003.

Hughs, Graham. ‘Gwen Hardie.’ In Arts Review, (4 December, 1987).

Jackson, Alan. Peter Howson: a Different Man, From Bosnia and Beyond. Edinburgh: Mainstream Publishing 1997.

Ken Currie. London: BCA, 1999.

Ken Currie. Glasgow: Third Eye Centre, 1988.

Macmillan, Duncan. The Paintings of Steven Campbell: the Story So Far. Edinburgh: Mainstream Publishing, 1993.

Moffat, Alexander. ‘Telling Stories: A New Figuration in Glasgow 1980-85.’ In New Image Glasgow. Glasgow: Third Eye Centre 1985.

Nomand, Tom. ‘Visualising Identity: The Vigorous Imagination exhibition of 1987’ (Unpublished).

Peter Howson: The Blind Leading the Blind. London: East Flowers Gallery, 1991.

Sitelines: Kate Whiteford. Edinburgh: Graeme Murray, 1992.

Steven Campbell: New Paintings. Edinburgh: Fruitmarket Gallery, 1984

Stirling University Media. Relatively Closer. Documentary about Lys Hansen – 11mins – (1 June 2009), accessed 5 November 2010, available from http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=iOoWzJJqrSE; Internet.

Sutherland, Giles. Passionate Paint: the Art of Lys Hansen, 1956-98. Mainstream: 1998.

The Edinburgh Group. Edinburgh: City Arts Group, 1983.

Sources relating to general context of art circa 1980

Cork, Richard. New Spirit, New Sculpture, New Money: Art in the 1980s. New Haven: Yale University Press, 2003.

Foster, Hal, Krauss, R., Bois Y.A., and B.H.D. Buchloh, eds. Art Since 1900. London: Thames & Hudson, 2004.

Godfrey, Tony. The New Image Painting in the 1980s. Oxford: Phaidon, 1986.

Harrison, Charles, and Paul Wood, eds. Art in Theory: 1900-2000. Oxford: Blackwell, 2003.

Hopkins, David. After Modern Art 1945-2000. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2000.

Hughes, Robert. The Shock of the New: Art and the Century of Change. London: Thames & Hudson, 1980.

Hyman, Timothy. Narrative Paintings: Figurative Art of Two Generations Selected By Timothy Hyman. Bristol: Arnolfini, 1979.

Livingstone, Marco, ed. British Figurative Painters of the 80s II. Kyoto: Kyoto Shoin International, 1989.

Owens, Craig. ‘Honour, Power and the Love of Women.’ In Art in America, (January 1983). Reprint, Theories of Contemporary Art, ed. Hertz, R. New Jersey: Prentice Hall, 1985.

Waldman, Diane. Georg Baselitz. New York: Guggenheim Museum Publications, 1995.

Sources relating to general context of Scottish art

Bold, Alan. Scottish Realism. Edinburgh: Scottish Arts Council, 1971.

Glasgow Museums. The Gallery of Modern Art Glasgow. London: Scala Books, 1996.

Hartley, Keith. Scottish Art since 1900. Edinburgh: Scottish National Gallery of Modern Art, 1989.

Hardie, William R. Scottish Painting 1837-present. London: Waverly Books, 1997.

Macdonald, Murdo. Scottish Art. London: Thames & Hudson, 2000.

MacMillan, Duncan. Scottish Art in the 20th Century. Edinburgh: Mainstream, 1994. Reprint, Edinburgh: Mainstream, 2001.

Moffat, Alexander and Alan Riach with Linda MacDonald-Lewis. Arts of Resistance. Edinburgh: Luath Press, 2009.

Mulholland, N. The Cultural Devolution: Art in Britain in the Late Twentieth Century. Aldershot: Ashgate Publishing, 2003.

Nornand, Tom. The Modern Scot: Modernism and Nationalism in Scottish Art, 1928-1955. Aldershot: Ashgate Publishing, 2000.
- ‘Scottish Modernism and Scottish National Identity.’ In ScotlandCreates: 5000 Years of Art and Design ed. Wendy Kaplan. London: Weidenfeld & Nicolson, 1990.

Scott, Paul H. ed. Scotland: a Concise Cultural History. Edinburgh: Mainstream Publishing 1993.

The Vigorous Imagination: New Scottish Art. Edinburgh: Scottish National Gallery of Modern Art, 1987.

Literary sources relating to the context and subject of my thesis

Blanford, Steve. Film, Drama and the Break-Up of Britain. Bristol: Intellect Books, 2007.

Crawford, Robert. Devolving English Literature. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1992. Revised, Edinburgh: Edinburgh University Press, 2000.
- Scotland’s Books. London: Penguin, 2007.
- The Penguin Book of Scottish Verse. London: Penguin, 2006.

Jones, Carole. Disappearing Men: Gender Disorientation in Scottish Fiction 1979-1999. Amsterdam; New York: Rodopi 2009.

Knox, William. Lives of Scottish Women: Women and Scottish Society, 1800-1980. Edinburgh: Edinburgh University Press, 2006.

Lochhead, Liz. Mary Queen of Scots Got Her Head Chopped Off. London: Nick Hern Books, 2009.
- True Confessions. Edinburgh: Polygon, 1985.

Magnusson, Magnus. Scotland: the Story of a Nation. London: HarperCollins, 2000.

Morgan, Edwin. Nothing Not Giving Messages, ed. Hamish Whyte. Edinburgh: Polygon, 1990.

Plain, Gill. Ian Rankin’s Black and Blue: a Reader’s Guide. New York; London: Continuum, 2002.

Whyte, Christopher. Gendering the Nation: Studies in Modern Scottish Literature. Edinburgh: Edinburgh University Press, 1995.

Williams, Tennessee. A Streetcar Named Desire (London: Penguin, 1959, 2000)

Additional sources

Behr, Shulamith. Movements in Modern Art: Expressionism. London: Tate Gallery, 1999.

Benke, Bettina. Georgia O’Keeffe, 1887-1986: Flowers in the Desert. Köln: Taschen, 2003.

‘Celtic Spiral: Celtic Spiral Meaning’, Celtic Symbol Dictionary, accessed 3 April 2011; available from http://celtic-symbol-dictionary.com/celtic_spiral.aspx; Internet.

Cirlot, Juan E., Jack Sage trans. A Dictionary of Symbols. London: Routledge & Kegan Paul, 1962

Koloss, H.-J. Art of Central Africa: Masterpieces from the Berlin Museum für Völkerkunde. New York: Metropolitan Museum of Modern, 1990.

Mahon, Alyce. Eroticism & Art. Oxford: Oxford University Press 2005.

Sejourne, Laurette. El Universo de Quetzalcoatl. Mexico, DF: Fondo de Cultura Econbmica, 1962. 54. In A Study of Mesoamerican Religious Symbolism, David A. Palmer, accessed 3 April 2011; available from http://www.ancientamerica.org/library/media/HTML/82wk4ntb/A%20STUDY%20OF%20MESOAMERICAN% 20RELIGIOUS%20SYMBOLISM.htm?n=0; Internet.

Wolf, Gary. ‘View from Berlin, 1998 – Venture Kapital’. Wired, Issue 6.06 (June 1998), accessed 10 April 2011; available from http://aether.com/archives/view_from_berlin_1998.html; Internet.

Copyright © Anna Lisa Stone 2011